Plants in the Hydroponic System Water Q&A

Rix Dobbs shows the roots of a lettuce plant g...

Image via Wikipedia

Q: I have a NFT hydroponic system. I can’t seem to find away to stop the plug (in which I started the seed off in) from sitting in the flow of water. Please can you help?

A: Some moisture in the transplant plug is usually desirable to prevent the roots in the plug from dying. However, some plants do not like to be fully submerged in standing water. Depending on how deep the nutrient solution is in the channels of your hydroponic system, you have a few different possible solutions.

One idea is to use very small netted pots. The strategy here is to place a seed (or clone) into the transplant plug, then to place the plug directly into a netted pot just big enough to hold the transplant plug. You want to do all of this before your seed (or clone) grows any roots. Once you see the first sign of roots, you want to place the netted pots into your hydroponic system. Ideally, the very bottom of the plug come into contact with the nutrient solution just a little bit. This allows the plug to “wick up” the moisture it needs until it can grow roots down into the bottom of your channels.

Another strategy is similar to above, except the plugs are suspended an inch or more above the nutrient solution (usually because of the design of the system). In this case, you may want to consider adding a drip system. This will provide enough moisture to each transplant plug until your plants have the opportunity to grow roots down into your system.

If the nutrient solution is shallow (about 1/2- 1 inch deep) you may want to consider anchoring your transplant plugs into 3″ netted pots with a few clay pellets, then sitting the netted pots down into the channels of your hydroponic system. In this strategy, the netted pots sit right down on the bottom, but the re-circulating water is very shallow and therefore stays well oxygenated. The pots also can wick up the moisture they need until they can grow roots down into the system. With a little modification to your system, the netted pots can even be lifted out of the standing water and suspended above the nutrient solution once there is significant root growth.

Lastly, many plants will tolerate being grown straight in standing water. Even plants that prefer fast draining soil will grow well in these conditions, as long as an effort is made to keep the nutrient solution well oxygenated and to keep the temperature of the nutrient solution between 68 and 72 degrees. This is true with my most successful hydroponic system. The whole strategy can be found at the link above, and the system works very well with tomatoes, peppers, lettuce, herbs, spinach, and many other plants. I hope this helps you out, and Happy Growing!

Hydroponic Gardening Tips and Tricks

We have seen many people try hydroponic gardening once or twice and fail, never to try again. The reason usually falls into one of three categories…

  • lack of knowledge– you don’t know how things should be or what you need to do
  • lack of discipline– you know how things should be and you know what needs to be done, but you don’t take the time or put forth the effort
  • lack of ability– you know how things should be, you know what needs to be done, and you are eager to put forth the time and effort… but you do not have necessary hydroponic gardening equipment or supplies

The tips list/explain below will help you identify (and eliminate) problems in your hydroponic garden. Even after reading advice like this myself, it took two years of making mistakes and learning things the hard way before I changed my approach and took these lessons to heart. As a result, I had the most successful garden I ever had. So, follow the tips below to shave years off of your learning curve and skip right to excellent results!

Tips and Tricks – The Short List

  • Know what equipment you need and why
  • Know the nutritional requirements of your plants
  • Know the light/photoperiod requirements of your plants
  • Use a professional three part hydroponic nutrients product
  • Do not use additional nutrient additives your first time
  • Have a written plan/feeding schedule before you start
  • Have all necessary equipment and nutrients before you start
  • Garden indoors when it is 55*F or less outdoors (or use AC)
  • Keep the ballast for your lights in a different room
  • Check and adjust your nutrient reservoir solution every day
  • Minimize light exposure to your nutrient solution
  • Have an extra reservoir of plain water waiting for your next nutrient change
  • Change your water and nutrients completely every two weeks
  • Use a digital timer to control your dark period
  • Keep your dark period completely dark and uninterrupted
  • Clean and sterilize your system between crops
  • Quarantine new plants for two weeks before adding to your garden
  • Do not visit your garden after visiting another garden or being outdoors
  • Do not allow pets in your garden
  • Visit your garden after a shower and a fresh change of clothes
  • Make any visitors to your garden follow these same rules
  • Put a screen or filter over your air intake and exhaust (if outdoors)

Having a Plan

Hydroponic gardening success begins with having a solid plan. Having a plan means knowing your plants nutritional requirements and photoperiod requirements and having the supplies and equipment necessary to meet those needs. Actually having a written week by week feeding schedule, complete with nutrient strengths and nutrient changes, would also be very helpful.

Feeding/Nutrients

Know the nutritional requirements of your plants before you start. Know how strong the nutrients should be each week of your plant’s life, and know what the nutrients should consist of each week. Many plants need more Nitrogen at first, than switch to needing more Phosphorus to produce fruit or flowers.

Do not try to mix up your own plant food. Instead, start with a professional hydroponic nutrients product. These are usually three part systems and are complete (and easy to use). My favorite is BC Nutrients. Once your hydroponic gardening system is up and running and producing excellent results, than you can try mixing up your own special plant food if you like. At least than you will know exactly what the problem is if things don’t work out!

The same is true for using nutrient additives. Don’t try to improve your results by adding a bunch of extra things to your nutrient reservoir (at least not at first). Start by feeding just the basic three part nutrients until your hydroponic gardening system is working smoothly and producing excellent results. Than if you like you can try adding vitamin B1, liquid seaweed, or silica (or all three).

Finally, you need to check and maintain your nutrient reservoir every day. After using the same nutrients for two weeks, you need to start over with fresh water and fresh nutrients. The most beneficial way to do this is to have two nutrient reservoirs, one with nutrient solution for your hydroponic gardening system and one with plain water for your next nutrient solution change. I can’t stress how important this tip is! The second reservoir allows the water to dechlorinate and come to room temperature, both protecting your roots.

Root Health

If roots become damaged, they cannot take up nutrients to feed the plants. Any damage below ground will result in damage above ground as dead leaves and sick plants. Protect your roots by maintaining your nutrient solution properly, by using two hydroponic nutrient reservoirs (one with plain water for your next nutrient change), and by minimizing the amount of light that comes in contact with your nutrient solution. This will prevent algae, which will prevent fungus gnats, which will prevent root damage.

Adequate Lighting

There are very few shortcuts when it comes to lighting an indoor garden. You need a minimum of 40 watts/sq.ft., but 60 watts/sq.ft. would be better. Either high pressure sodium lights or metal halide lights will do a very fine job and are the most popular choices. For various reasons I recommend a 600 watt LED grow light 3w, check out How to choose the correct lighting arrangement for hydroponic gardening.

Controling Temperature

HID lights put out a lot of heat, making temperature an issue in an indoor garden. Placing the ballast for your light outside the grow room will help, but it is not enough. A centrifugal fans or squirrel cage fans are an absolute must, but if you use LED grow light, don’t need to buy an extra fans.

Photoperiod

Many crops require shorter daylight periods to trigger flowering/fruiting. Two keys to success here: First, the lights need to be turned off and back on at exactly the same time each day (tip- use a digital timer!). Second, the plants should be kept in absolute complete UNINTERRUPTED darkness during the dark period. Plants can be extremely sensitive to this, so don’t try to skirt around this. For more info, check out my flower forcing page.

The Right Equipment/Tools

Don’t start your garden unless you have all your bases covered from the beginning. You will need a completely dark area, a high powered fan, an adequate light, a hydroponic gardening system, hydroponic nutrients, an oscillating fan, a TDS meter (or EC meter), a pH test kit, and possibly an air conditioner. Minimum. A thermometer and a digital timer would come in handy too.

Cultivation requirements

Cannabis needs certain conditions to flourish.

Growth medium
Soil is required, except for cannabis grown with hydroponics

Sufficient nutrients—commercial soil bags usually indicate this as “N-P-K = x%-y%-z%” the percentages of the fundamental nutritional elements, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. Nutrients are often provided to the soil via fertilizers but such practice requires caution.

pH between 6.0 and 7.0. This value can be adjusted – see soil pH. Commercial fertilizers (even organic) almost always make the soil more acidic (decrease its pH).

Warmth
The optimal day temperature range for cannabis is 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 F). Temperatures above 31 °C and below 15.5 °C seem to decrease THC potency and slow growth. At 13 °C the plant undergoes a mild shock, though some strains withstand frost temporarily.

Light
Light can be natural (outdoor growing) or artificial (indoor growing).

When artificial light is used, from the germination until the flowering stage, the plant typically remains under a regime of 16–20 hours of light and 4–8 hours of darkness, although the plant can use a full 24 hours of light without harm. When the plant reaches the flowering stage the regime is typically switched to 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

Water
Watering frequency and amount is determined by many factors, including temperature and light, the age, size and stage of growth of the plant and the medium’s texture. A conspicuous sign of water problems is the downward wilting of leaves. Too much water can kill young cannabis plants. Plants are occasionally sprayed with water to fend off under-watering in small steps.

Nutrients
Fertilizer burn on a leaf

Nutrients are the food of plants and come in the form of fertilizers that can be chemical or organic, liquid or powder and may contain several elements (see also: fertilizer). Commercial fertilizers must indicate the levels of NPK (mentioned above). During the vegetative stage, cannabis needs more N than P and K, while during the flowering stage, P is more essential than N and K. The presence of secondary nutrients (calcium, magnesium, sulfur) is recommended. Also there are seven micro nutrients (Iron, boron, chlorine, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum) that are not extremely important and rarely manifest as deficiencies.

Fertilizers are vital for good cannabis growth but must be used frugally to avoid burning the plant. As a general rule, half the amount suggested in a bottle may be given each time.

Because cannabis is acclimatized to virtually every growing region on Earth, its nutrient needs vary widely with its genetics and can truly only be determined with experience. Chemical plant foods vary greatly maker to maker, and some can be used at full strength, or the strength listed for plants with large fruits like the tomato.

Hydroponics Feeding Tips

How to grow hydro is really about how to maintain your nutrient reservoir. After all, there is nothing you can do to MAKE your plants grow. You can only provide all the best conditions, sit back, and let plant growth happen.

Assume your plants are getting enough light and air and are kept at a good temperature. Plant growth will happen (often quickly) as long as you provide the best conditions in the nutrient solution (everyday).

Welcome to www.ledgrowlight-hydro.com blog, check out our 600w LED grow light for hydroponics systems, we also have 300w led, 200w led, 150w led, 120w led, 90w ufo led, 50w mini ufo led, 45w led, 14w led.

Beginning Water Quality

Learning how to grow hydro starts with your beginning water quality. Check your tap water with a TDS meter. Anything over 200 ppm and you should probably use a reverse osmosis filter, or else use bottled spring water. While not necessary, it’s not a bad idea to treat your water using hydrogen peroxide.

If you really want to complicate things, you can get a complete water test. In this case, you can use tap water with up to 300 ppm as long as no more than 150 ppm of the total is from calcium or calcium carbonate and sodium.

How to Grow Hydro with Additives and Supplements

Through the water, the plants will receive all of their food. This water needs to contain primary nutrients (N-P-K), secondary nutrients (calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfur), and all trace nutrients. I recommend using a professional hydroponic nutrient product for this.

In addition to regular food, there are a few additives that make a huge difference in the healthy development of your plants. These are vitamins (like Thrive Alive B1), trace nutrient supplements (like Maxicrop liquid seaweed), and plant hormones (in any type of seaweed). Another useful additive is silica, which is used to boost the immune system of plants.

Many expert gardening articles I have read by people who know how to grow hydro recommend adding Thrive Alive B1 and Maxicrop to every drop of water you give your plants. Use 10 ml (2 tsp) per gallon of each. If you are using a seaweed based fertilizer, it is not necessary to add liquid seaweed.

Nutrient Solution Ph

If you want to learn how to grow hydro well, you must know about Ph. The nutrients are only good to the plants if the Ph is right. The maximum nutrients are available to the plants in a Ph range of 5.5 to 6.5. In hydroponics, the nutrients are often kept at about 5.5 because the plants absorb the nutrients slightly more quickly at this Ph.

Also, the natural tendency is for the Ph to creep up over time, and so it is your natural tendency to adjust the Ph down to the low end of the range when you make an adjustment.

Nutrient Solution Strength

People that know how to grow hydro use a total dissolved salts (TDS) meter or an electrical conductivity (EC) meter to tell how strong or how weak the nutrient solution is. The ideal strength of your nutrient solution depends on what type of plants you are growing, and also what stage of the plant life cycle they are in. Check this section out to find out what strength to keep your nutrient solution.

Maintaining your Nutrient Solution

In a ten gallon reservoir, you will need to check the strength (TDS or EC) and the Ph of your solution twice a day. With a larger reservoir, the changes in the nutrient solution take more time. I would still recommend you check your nutrient solution once a day, no matter what size reservoir you have. People that know how to grow hydro usually use a larger reservoir.

If the Ph is up, than add some Ph down. It is a good idea to check the Ph first, because the addition of Ph down will change the strength of your solution a little (TDS or EC).

If the nutrient strength is a little weak, add a little fertilizer. If the nutrient strength is a little high, add plain water. It is a good idea to let water sit out overnight in an uncovered container. This lets the water dechlorinate, and also lets the water become room temperature. Adding cold water will shock the roots, causing root damage as well as above ground damage.

Change it Every Two Weeks

After two weeks of using the same nutrient solution, it is time for a nutrient change. The plants may have been using some nutrients more than others, and now you might be heading for a nutrient imbalance. Keep an extra nutrient reservoir full of plain water waiting for your next nutrient solution change. This ensures you will have dechlorinated, room temperature water that will not damage your plant’s roots.

It is a good idea to run a tank full of plain water (or 1/4 strength nutrient solution) for a day in between nutrient changes, to flush out any nutrient buildup. Some experienced gardeners do this every four weeks, or every other nutrient change. During every nutrient change, consider using hydrogen peroxide to keep things clean and healthy.

The Final Tweak

Once you have a simple feeding plan that is working well, you can try to maximize your results. The best advice here is to make small changes, one at a time, and to let each change show its effects before making another change. Sometimes this will mean waiting two weeks, other times it may mean waiting a whole crop cycle for the results.

The Final Flush

Pros that know how to grow hydro usually do a final flush just before harvest. This can be done by replacing the nutrient solution with plain water for the last 7 to 10 days. It will help if you change the water each day with fresh, plain water for these last few days.

Flushing the crop helps remove any fertilizers in the plant tissue. Flushing will improve the flavor and aroma of the produce in your garden.

LED Grow Lights for Better Plant Growth

LED grow lights can be a good switch from HID lights for gardeners, botanists, and vegetable growers. LED stands for a light-emitting diode. A diode is a semiconductor because it can only transmit electricity in one direction, which is why it is considered “forward biased”. As it is light-emitting its essential characteristic is its ability to produce light. Such principle is called, “electroluminescence.” So before, LEDs were mainly used as light indicators in devices to show their different types and levels of operation.

So, how do LEDs influence the growth of plants? The basis of LEDs’ effectivity is based on a study of plants’ photosynthetic response to different parts of light. As you know, white light is composed of a spectrum of colors which you can observe from a rainbow, wherein light is refracted.

What you may not know is that plants have different levels of response to certain parts of light. Data shows that plants have a high response to blue and red light. Observing the intensity of their absorption throughout the whole spectrum of light, you can see that it reaches its peak in the red area, plus an upward spike in the blue area. So, when you expose plants or mere seeds to these colors, you can increase photosynthetic response. The stronger the activity of the chlorophyll, the more energy builds up, which is then utilized by your plants to make them grow faster and healthier.

LED grow lights can be easily set up. You just have to suspend them in strategic places to get the most use out of them. It’s just like installing an additional lighting in your kitchen or garage. You just have to make sure to plug these fixtures in waterproof sockets to prevent any hazard, as you would be working in a moist environment. And if you’ve ever been electrocuted, you know that these two ought to be separated from each other. The bulbs can also vary in size so you can place them in an expansive greenhouse or just a small corner in your house or apartment.

Using 3w LED grow lights is, however, not simply placing your plants under red light and waiting for them to bloom or yield harvest. You can get good results, but for the tool’s optimal use, you need to control the ratio of the blue and red light that is being emitted. The device allows you to manipulate the blue/red ratio according to the stage of growth of your plant. For example, to increase vegetation in lettuces there should be 100% red light and thus, 0% blue light.

Using 2w LED grow lights in a matter of months, you may have African Violets in full bloom or big juicy tomatoes that are ready for plucking. So, this is very ideal if you want to grow a small patch of vegetable garden. In a way, you can be sure that you’re eating only organic food, while saving you the trip to the store for some missing ingredients.

Copyright © All Rights Reserved · Green Hope Theme by Sivan & schiy · Proudly powered by WordPress