We have seen many people try hydroponic gardening once or twice and fail, never to try again. The reason usually falls into one of three categories…
- lack of knowledge- you don’t know how things should be or what you need to do
- lack of discipline- you know how things should be and you know what needs to be done, but you don’t take the time or put forth the effort
- lack of ability- you know how things should be, you know what needs to be done, and you are eager to put forth the time and effort… but you do not have necessary hydroponic gardening equipment or supplies
The tips list/explain below will help you identify (and eliminate) problems in your hydroponic garden. Even after reading advice like this myself, it took two years of making mistakes and learning things the hard way before I changed my approach and took these lessons to heart. As a result, I had the most successful garden I ever had. So, follow the tips below to shave years off of your learning curve and skip right to excellent results!
Tips and Tricks – The Short List
- Know what equipment you need and why
- Know the nutritional requirements of your plants
- Know the light/photoperiod requirements of your plants
- Use a professional three part hydroponic nutrients product
- Do not use additional nutrient additives your first time
- Have a written plan/feeding schedule before you start
- Have all necessary equipment and nutrients before you start
- Garden indoors when it is 55*F or less outdoors (or use AC)
- Keep the ballast for your lights in a different room
- Check and adjust your nutrient reservoir solution every day
- Minimize light exposure to your nutrient solution
- Have an extra reservoir of plain water waiting for your next nutrient change
- Change your water and nutrients completely every two weeks
- Use a digital timer to control your dark period
- Keep your dark period completely dark and uninterrupted
- Clean and sterilize your system between crops
- Quarantine new plants for two weeks before adding to your garden
- Do not visit your garden after visiting another garden or being outdoors
- Do not allow pets in your garden
- Visit your garden after a shower and a fresh change of clothes
- Make any visitors to your garden follow these same rules
- Put a screen or filter over your air intake and exhaust (if outdoors)
Having a Plan
Hydroponic gardening success begins with having a solid plan. Having a plan means knowing your plants nutritional requirements and photoperiod requirements and having the supplies and equipment necessary to meet those needs. Actually having a written week by week feeding schedule, complete with nutrient strengths and nutrient changes, would also be very helpful.
Know the nutritional requirements of your plants before you start. Know how strong the nutrients should be each week of your plant’s life, and know what the nutrients should consist of each week. Many plants need more Nitrogen at first, than switch to needing more Phosphorus to produce fruit or flowers.
Do not try to mix up your own plant food. Instead, start with a professional hydroponic nutrients product. These are usually three part systems and are complete (and easy to use). My favorite is BC Nutrients. Once your hydroponic gardening system is up and running and producing excellent results, than you can try mixing up your own special plant food if you like. At least than you will know exactly what the problem is if things don’t work out!
The same is true for using nutrient additives. Don’t try to improve your results by adding a bunch of extra things to your nutrient reservoir (at least not at first). Start by feeding just the basic three part nutrients until your hydroponic gardening system is working smoothly and producing excellent results. Than if you like you can try adding vitamin B1, liquid seaweed, or silica (or all three).
Finally, you need to check and maintain your nutrient reservoir every day. After using the same nutrients for two weeks, you need to start over with fresh water and fresh nutrients. The most beneficial way to do this is to have two nutrient reservoirs, one with nutrient solution for your hydroponic gardening system and one with plain water for your next nutrient solution change. I can’t stress how important this tip is! The second reservoir allows the water to dechlorinate and come to room temperature, both protecting your roots.
If roots become damaged, they cannot take up nutrients to feed the plants. Any damage below ground will result in damage above ground as dead leaves and sick plants. Protect your roots by maintaining your nutrient solution properly, by using two hydroponic nutrient reservoirs (one with plain water for your next nutrient change), and by minimizing the amount of light that comes in contact with your nutrient solution. This will prevent algae, which will prevent fungus gnats, which will prevent root damage.
There are very few shortcuts when it comes to lighting an indoor garden. You need a minimum of 40 watts/sq.ft., but 60 watts/sq.ft. would be better. Either high pressure sodium lights or metal halide lights will do a very fine job and are the most popular choices. For various reasons I recommend a 600 watt LED grow light 3w, check out How to choose the correct lighting arrangement for hydroponic gardening.
HID lights put out a lot of heat, making temperature an issue in an indoor garden. Placing the ballast for your light outside the grow room will help, but it is not enough. A centrifugal fans or squirrel cage fans are an absolute must, but if you use LED grow light, don’t need to buy an extra fans.
Many crops require shorter daylight periods to trigger flowering/fruiting. Two keys to success here: First, the lights need to be turned off and back on at exactly the same time each day (tip- use a digital timer!). Second, the plants should be kept in absolute complete UNINTERRUPTED darkness during the dark period. Plants can be extremely sensitive to this, so don’t try to skirt around this. For more info, check out my flower forcing page.
The Right Equipment/Tools
Don’t start your garden unless you have all your bases covered from the beginning. You will need a completely dark area, a high powered fan, an adequate light, a hydroponic gardening system, hydroponic nutrients, an oscillating fan, a TDS meter (or EC meter), a pH test kit, and possibly an air conditioner. Minimum. A thermometer and a digital timer would come in handy too.
You will need to think about the following equipment to get a grow room up and going.
- Growing medium;
- Reservoir tank and water;
- Grow systems;
- Final plant size – how big do you want these ladies to be?
- Lighting, type and distance between the lights and the plants;
- Fans and air control including ventilation;
- Power outlets, timers, and meters (temperature, EC and pH);
- Room to work around the growth.
Spend some time planning your marijuana grow room in advance. A well planned grow room will be easier to work in and leaves less room for costly mistakes and accidents. Any space that can be made into an enclosed, lightproof environment will be suitable; from a whole garage or attic, down to a cupboard or even a tented off area of your room. But remember that you will need ventilation and space around the plants to tend to them.
Ideally, you should have at least 6ft (1.83cm) of headroom and easy access to power sockets. You can grow in smaller spaces but you will need to train your plants downwards on wires on a daily basis as they grow quickly under lights.
Think about discretion. Fans, bright lights(ie 600w LED) and pumps can sometimes attract unwanted attention and so should be kept away from neighbours or living accommodation where they may prove a nuisance. It is also important to think about odours. You’re burgeoning crop may begin to smell quite strongly, even from outside your house or flat. More information on eliminating odours can be found here.
Safety is a crucial consideration when planning the growing environment. Electricity and water don’t mix. Keep all electric appliances away from water and up off the floor in case of flooding. Before starting to grow, double check all timers, pipes, leads and electrical connections. It is usually a good idea to buy new gear but well inspected used gear can save you a lot of money. We would always buy new LED grow lights though as they do have a longer life expectancy and old traditional grow lights can offer poor results.
Give the whole system a dummy run first to be sure that there have been no errors in setting up. Watch that reservoir systems do not overfill on to the floor, that light does not escape the room and that the temperature does not fluctuate or get too hot or cold in the air and the reservoir. Remember to keep a fire extinguisher to hand in the grow room. I am not joking.
Cannabis needs certain conditions to flourish.
Soil is required, except for cannabis grown with hydroponics
Sufficient nutrients—commercial soil bags usually indicate this as “N-P-K = x%-y%-z%” the percentages of the fundamental nutritional elements, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. Nutrients are often provided to the soil via fertilizers but such practice requires caution.
pH between 6.0 and 7.0. This value can be adjusted – see soil pH. Commercial fertilizers (even organic) almost always make the soil more acidic (decrease its pH).
The optimal day temperature range for cannabis is 24 to 30 °C (75 to 86 F). Temperatures above 31 °C and below 15.5 °C seem to decrease THC potency and slow growth. At 13 °C the plant undergoes a mild shock, though some strains withstand frost temporarily.
Light can be natural (outdoor growing) or artificial (indoor growing).
When artificial light is used, from the germination until the flowering stage, the plant typically remains under a regime of 16–20 hours of light and 4–8 hours of darkness, although the plant can use a full 24 hours of light without harm. When the plant reaches the flowering stage the regime is typically switched to 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.
Watering frequency and amount is determined by many factors, including temperature and light, the age, size and stage of growth of the plant and the medium’s texture. A conspicuous sign of water problems is the downward wilting of leaves. Too much water can kill young cannabis plants. Plants are occasionally sprayed with water to fend off under-watering in small steps.
Fertilizer burn on a leaf
Nutrients are the food of plants and come in the form of fertilizers that can be chemical or organic, liquid or powder and may contain several elements (see also: fertilizer). Commercial fertilizers must indicate the levels of NPK (mentioned above). During the vegetative stage, cannabis needs more N than P and K, while during the flowering stage, P is more essential than N and K. The presence of secondary nutrients (calcium, magnesium, sulfur) is recommended. Also there are seven micro nutrients (Iron, boron, chlorine, manganese, copper, zinc, molybdenum) that are not extremely important and rarely manifest as deficiencies.
Fertilizers are vital for good cannabis growth but must be used frugally to avoid burning the plant. As a general rule, half the amount suggested in a bottle may be given each time.
Because cannabis is acclimatized to virtually every growing region on Earth, its nutrient needs vary widely with its genetics and can truly only be determined with experience. Chemical plant foods vary greatly maker to maker, and some can be used at full strength, or the strength listed for plants with large fruits like the tomato.
How to grow hydro is really about how to maintain your nutrient reservoir. After all, there is nothing you can do to MAKE your plants grow. You can only provide all the best conditions, sit back, and let plant growth happen.
Assume your plants are getting enough light and air and are kept at a good temperature. Plant growth will happen (often quickly) as long as you provide the best conditions in the nutrient solution (everyday).
Welcome to www.ledgrowlight-hydro.com blog, check out our 600w LED grow light for hydroponics systems, we also have 300w led, 200w led, 150w led, 120w led, 90w ufo led, 50w mini ufo led, 45w led, 14w led.
Beginning Water Quality
Learning how to grow hydro starts with your beginning water quality. Check your tap water with a TDS meter. Anything over 200 ppm and you should probably use a reverse osmosis filter, or else use bottled spring water. While not necessary, it’s not a bad idea to treat your water using hydrogen peroxide.
If you really want to complicate things, you can get a complete water test. In this case, you can use tap water with up to 300 ppm as long as no more than 150 ppm of the total is from calcium or calcium carbonate and sodium.
How to Grow Hydro with Additives and Supplements
Through the water, the plants will receive all of their food. This water needs to contain primary nutrients (N-P-K), secondary nutrients (calcium, magnesium, iron, sulfur), and all trace nutrients. I recommend using a professional hydroponic nutrient product for this.
In addition to regular food, there are a few additives that make a huge difference in the healthy development of your plants. These are vitamins (like Thrive Alive B1), trace nutrient supplements (like Maxicrop liquid seaweed), and plant hormones (in any type of seaweed). Another useful additive is silica, which is used to boost the immune system of plants.
Many expert gardening articles I have read by people who know how to grow hydro recommend adding Thrive Alive B1 and Maxicrop to every drop of water you give your plants. Use 10 ml (2 tsp) per gallon of each. If you are using a seaweed based fertilizer, it is not necessary to add liquid seaweed.
Nutrient Solution Ph
If you want to learn how to grow hydro well, you must know about Ph. The nutrients are only good to the plants if the Ph is right. The maximum nutrients are available to the plants in a Ph range of 5.5 to 6.5. In hydroponics, the nutrients are often kept at about 5.5 because the plants absorb the nutrients slightly more quickly at this Ph.
Also, the natural tendency is for the Ph to creep up over time, and so it is your natural tendency to adjust the Ph down to the low end of the range when you make an adjustment.
Nutrient Solution Strength
People that know how to grow hydro use a total dissolved salts (TDS) meter or an electrical conductivity (EC) meter to tell how strong or how weak the nutrient solution is. The ideal strength of your nutrient solution depends on what type of plants you are growing, and also what stage of the plant life cycle they are in. Check this section out to find out what strength to keep your nutrient solution.
Maintaining your Nutrient Solution
In a ten gallon reservoir, you will need to check the strength (TDS or EC) and the Ph of your solution twice a day. With a larger reservoir, the changes in the nutrient solution take more time. I would still recommend you check your nutrient solution once a day, no matter what size reservoir you have. People that know how to grow hydro usually use a larger reservoir.
If the Ph is up, than add some Ph down. It is a good idea to check the Ph first, because the addition of Ph down will change the strength of your solution a little (TDS or EC).
If the nutrient strength is a little weak, add a little fertilizer. If the nutrient strength is a little high, add plain water. It is a good idea to let water sit out overnight in an uncovered container. This lets the water dechlorinate, and also lets the water become room temperature. Adding cold water will shock the roots, causing root damage as well as above ground damage.
Change it Every Two Weeks
After two weeks of using the same nutrient solution, it is time for a nutrient change. The plants may have been using some nutrients more than others, and now you might be heading for a nutrient imbalance. Keep an extra nutrient reservoir full of plain water waiting for your next nutrient solution change. This ensures you will have dechlorinated, room temperature water that will not damage your plant’s roots.
It is a good idea to run a tank full of plain water (or 1/4 strength nutrient solution) for a day in between nutrient changes, to flush out any nutrient buildup. Some experienced gardeners do this every four weeks, or every other nutrient change. During every nutrient change, consider using hydrogen peroxide to keep things clean and healthy.
The Final Tweak
Once you have a simple feeding plan that is working well, you can try to maximize your results. The best advice here is to make small changes, one at a time, and to let each change show its effects before making another change. Sometimes this will mean waiting two weeks, other times it may mean waiting a whole crop cycle for the results.
The Final Flush
Pros that know how to grow hydro usually do a final flush just before harvest. This can be done by replacing the nutrient solution with plain water for the last 7 to 10 days. It will help if you change the water each day with fresh, plain water for these last few days.
Flushing the crop helps remove any fertilizers in the plant tissue. Flushing will improve the flavor and aroma of the produce in your garden.